Abstract & Key Words
Two new species of Dendrobium Sect. Calcarifera (Orchidaceae) from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia
EDWARD ENTALAI BESI, DOME NIKONG, MUSKHAZLI MUSTAFA & RUSEA GO
Abstract: Two new species, Dendrobium ainiae R. Go et E. E. Besi and Dendrobium
ruseae E. E. Besi et Dome belonging to Sect. Calcarifera are described and illustrated from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. These species are so far known from a population in lowland dipterocarp forest. A field key to the Peninsular Malaysian taxa of Dendrobium Sect. Calcarifera including Dendrobium chewiorum is also provided.
Key words: Orchidaceae, Sect. Calcarifera, Dendrobium ainiae and Dendrobium ruseae, lowland dipterocarp forest, field key.
An inventory study of the Lepidoptera of Hutan Lipur Lata Belatan and Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu Forest, Terengganu Malaysia with a comparison of lepidopteran diversity at these two sites
Abstract: At 1039 metres, Gunung Tebu is one of the highest hills in NE Peninsular Malaysia and the highest in Terengganu, surrounded by selectively logged community forest. Human disturbance and infrastructure development have been associated with a reduction in floral and faunal diversity. Sampling of butterflies and moths was carried out in July 2012 in two principal regions; comprising low altitude disturbed recreational forest and the higher–altitude, relatively undisturbed, forest of Gunung Tebu itself. A total of 113 individuals belonging to 101 species in 20 lepidopteran families were collected. The family Geometridae was the richest in terms of species (25%), followed by Erebidae (20%), and several families were each represented by only a single species. The Simpson Diversity Index (D) of species diversity was 1.963 x 10-3 and Fisher’s alpha (α) index was 458.1 overall indicating very high diversity in Lepidoptera in the forest. For the two sites individually, D was 6.585 x 10-4 for Lata Belatan forest and 4.545 x 10-3 for Gunung Tebu forest. The Fisher’s alpha, Shannon-Weiner Index and Species Evenness (E’) for Lata Belatan forest were also higher than for Gunung Tebu forest. Presented here are the full results of this sampling, in tabular form, along with the outcomes of various diversity indices and a discussion of their implications.
Key words: classification, alpha and beta diversity, primary forest, disturbed forest, altitude, conservation, undersampling
A new species of Barringtonia (Lecythidaceae) from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia
A. LATIFF and Z. AHMAD FITRI
Abstract: A new species, Barringtonia fitriana Latiff is described and illustrated from Kuala Paka, Dungun, Terengganu.
Key words: Barringtonia, new species.
Comparative anatomical study and morphological observation of three medicinal Vitex species (Lamiaceae)
NOR NAFIZAH MOHD NOOR, FATIMAH MOHAMED, NORHAYATI DAUD, HASIMAH ALIMON, MAZATUL AZRIN RAHMAN and HILDA ANAK EMAK
Abstract: : Many species of Vitex have medicinal values and despite of being widely utilized, they are sometimes confusing due to high morphological variation. In this study, leaf anatomical characters of three species, V. pinnata, V. negundo and V. trifolia have been studied comprehensively including the epidermal characters, margin TS, lamina TS, midrib TS and petiole TS. Leaf morphological observation was also conducted. Generally, all three species show similar anatomical characters. However, some anatomical variations can be diagnostic and taxonomically valuable. Morphological characters for the leaf apex and lamina can also be used in delineating these three species.
Key words: Vitex, Lamiaceae, anatomy, morphology, comparative study
Towards a revision of the moss genus Fissidens (Fissidentaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia
N. SYAZWANA, N. NORHAZRINA, H. MAIDEEN, KT. YONG and M. SULEIMAN
Abstract: Fissidens Hedw. is characterized by distichous leaves which are vertically placed, differentiated into a vaginant lamina consisting of two lamellae that clasp the stems, a dorsal lamina which is located opposite of the vaginant lamina, and an apical lamina above the vaginant lamina, peristome teeth split into two up to middle, with longitudinal stripes. At present, 28 species of Fissidens have been recognized in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper is based on evaluation of all the characters used to circumscribe the genus and the species from Peninsular Malaysia. Features which are useful for distinguishing species within the genus such as the characters of leaves, limbidium, lamina cell, costa, axillary hyaline nodule, seta and plant sexuality are being carefully examined.
Key words: Moss; Fissidens; Peninsular Malaysia
Morphological and anatomical Studies of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. (Myrtaceae)
MAHMOUD DOGARA ABDULRAHMAN, ABDUL MANAF ALI, HASAN NUDIN NUR FATIHAH, MOHAMMED MONERUZZAMAN KHANDAKER and NASHRIYAH MAT
Abstract: Syzygium is the largest genus with medicinal value that is found distributed all over Peninsular Malaysia and widely used for the treatments of diabetes, cancer, endometriosis, hypertension and also used as ulam. To further investigate the pharmacological aspects of Syzygium polyanthum there is the need for morpho anatomical studies of S. polyanthum. The study aimed to evaluate the morphological and anatomical characteristics of S. polyanthum (serai kayu and serai kayu hutan). Morphological study revealed less variation between serai kayu and serai kayu hutan such as the length, width of the leaf, and petiole length. However, they are widely variable in terms of the anatomy including stomatal cells, presence of unicellular hairs in the abaxial leaf surface of serai kayu hutan, different shapes of vascular bundle in the midrib and petiole that have been observed. Abundant oil secretion glands were observed in serai kayu hutan from the transverse section of leaf midrib. The above documented information is very important for taxonomic identification and authentication, which will serve as a guide for quality control in natural product development.
Key words: Morphology, Anatomy, Serai kayu, Serai kayu hutan, Syzygium polyanthum
Species richness and floristic variation of tree communities in Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. f. dominated forests of Peninsular Malaysia
N. A. NIK NORAFIDA, M. S. NIZAM, W. A. WAN JULIANA and P. FAEZAH
Abstract: Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f. (Dipterocarpaceae), forms monodominant forests at several specific locations in Peninsular Malaysia, whereby the species obviously occur abundantly in these forest habitats. Although this monodominant forest displays the dominance of D. aromatica, nevertheless, other vegetation communities are always contributing to the uniqueness of this forest habitat that include the richness and diversity of the forest. As such, a study was conducted to determine floristic variation and richness of tree communities of the D. aromatica dominated forest at three different locations in Peninsular Malaysia, namely, at Bukit Bauk Forest Reserve, Terengganu; Lesong Forest Reserve, Pahang and Kluang Forest Reserve, Johor. Ten plots of 50 m x 20 m were established at each location, totalling one ha. A total of 4,135 trees with diameter at breast height of 5.0 cm and above were enumerated in all the study plots, of which 1,474 trees occurred in the Bukit Bauk plot, whilst 1,364 trees and 1297 trees were recorded in Lesong and Kluang plots, respectively. Floristic composition of tree communities at the Bukit Bauk plots comprised of 336 tree species in 150 genera from 55 families, while the Kluang plots contained 272 species from 132 genera and 52 families; subsequently, the Lesong plots recorded 289 tree species, 138 genera and 52 families. Euphorbiaceae was the most speciose family in all plots, represented by 50, 27, 39 species at Bukit Bauk, Lesong and Kluang, respectively. Based on species-individual curves, species numbers in all locations did not reach asymptote; hence non-parametric Chao 1 estimator was used to estimate species richness in all study locations, resulting Bukit Bauk displayed the highest number of species, followed by Kluang and Lesong. Coleman rarefaction curve indicates that species richness of Bukit Bauk differs significantly compared to Kluang and Lesong plots, nevertheless, no significant difference was found for species richness between Kluang and Lesong. Similarity of tree species between the three study areas indicate Sorensen Similarity Index similarity of 41.1% for Bukit Bauk-Kluang, 32.3% for Bukit Bauk-Lesong, and 30.3% for Kluang-Lesong. The ordination diagramme constructed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) demonstrated floristic variation between the three study plots whereby the DCA obviously separated plots between sites, which indicated a gradient of species change from the Bukit Bauk to the Lesong and Kluang sites.
Key words: Dryobalanops aromatica, Kapur, monodominant forest, Detrended Correspondence Analysis
Diversity, distribution and conservation of Baccaurea species in the home gardens and orchards in Malaysia
A. KHADIJAH*, M. MOHD. KHAIRULAZHAR, A. MOHD NOR, A. R. RAZALI, A. RUSLI, O. MOHD KHAIRUDDIN, M. SOFIAH and M. A. MOHD SHUKRI
Abstract: The genus Baccaurea consists of underutilized and threatened fruit species.
Baccaurea species can be found in the forest, however they are also grown in the home gardens and orchards. A survey of Baccaurea species was carried out in 25 home gardens and orchards in Malaysia. A total of eight Baccaurea species was found cultivated and semi-cultivated in the home gardens and orchards. B. motleyana was common and widely cultivated. Baccaurea brevipes, B. velutina and B. reticulata were rare species found. The highest number of Baccaurea motleyana trees was found in Sarawak (152). The highest number of species was recorded in Sarawak and Pahang (5 species) however the species diversity was low in Sarawak (Shahnon Index, H = 0.672) which is due to the uneven distribution of the species. Eight Baccaurea species cultivated viz. B. angulata, B. lanceolata, B. macrocarpa, B. motleyana, B. polyneura, B. ramiflora, B. reticulata and B. velutina for ex situ conservation at MARDI germplasm at Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. B. motleyana was the first to start flowering after 3 years of planting followed by B. macrocarpa, B. polyneura, and B. ramiflora. Baccaurea macrocarpa is the potential species for large scale planting due to the good fruit quality and short juvenile period.
Key words: Underutilized fruits, ex situ conservation, in situ conservation, homegarden
Distribution and abundance of vertebrate animal road-kills in Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia
A. NORSHAQINAH, A. M. MUZNEENA, S. JULIANA and A. NORHAYATI
Abstract: Roads exert negative impacts on worldwide animal populations through
animal-vehicle collisions. On Pulau Langkawi, which is a UNESCO Global Geopark,
incidence of road-kills may offend tourists and even pose risks to tourist drivers, especially when Langkawi is highly regarded as nature tourist hotspot. Since there has never been any previous work done on road-kills in Langkawi, this study was conducted to evaluate road-kill events and sites, in order to identify contributing factors. The study was done from January 2017 to January 2018. Five routes were chosen of different lengths, adjacent vegetation, and land use. Surveys were conducted by car with a constant speed of 50 km-h. Overall, the surveys recorded a total of 304 road-kills, representing 30 vertebrate animal species. Reptilia was the most frequently recorded class, whereas Varanus nebulosus had the highest abundance with a total of 72 individuals. The highest number of road-kills with 118 mortalities were recorded along route 1 (R1), which covers Jalan Pantai Kok and Teluk Yu for a total of 15 km. Route 2 (R2) of Jalan Datai, which is about 24 km long, recorded the lowest frequency of road-kills (n=41). Among the road-kill species is a Slow Loris, Nycticebus coucang, which is a vulnerable species. The average value of Shannon index was H’=2.04, indicating a moderate species diversity. The Pielou’s evenness value (J’) was 0.80, showing a uniform distribution of all taxa among the five transects. This study may facilitate road management authorities and development authorities on road-kill mitigation for a better experience for tourists.
Key words: mammals, diversity, geopark, island, mitigation
Traditional medicinal knowledge of Malays in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia
MAHMOUD DOGARA ABDULRAHMAN, ABDUL MANAF ALI, HASAN NUDIN NUR FATIHAH, MOHAMMED MONERUZZAMAN KHANDAKER and NASHRIYAH MAT
Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the traditional knowledge of medicinal and aromatic plants, to explore and record those plants and plant parts used for treating various human ailments by the traditional healers in eight districts of Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. It was carried out through face to face interviews with the aid of a semi-structured open questionnaire. Three hundred and eighty four respondents were selected based on Krejcie-Morgan table. Forty six plant species were documented. Syzygium polyanthum was the only plant species with high UV, RFC and FL% at 0.068, 0.872 and 100%, respectively. The most common part of plant used in preparing herbal medicine was the leaves (55.5%). The most common method of preparation was decoction (34.4%) and infusion (24.0%), and cancer has the highest ICF value of 0.9950. The study has provided both quantitative and qualitative data which will be very useful for researchers to plan for biodiversity conservation and plant standardization, for possible development of herbal supplement and new drugs. Further scientific studies should be carried out on S. polyanthum.
Key words: Ethnobotany, Medicinal Plants, Aromatic Plants, Serai Kayu, Serai Kayu Hutan